As in previous meetings, we attempt to put together experts and colleagues interested in the "ecology of stream salmonids" based on the statements of previous meetings:
Considering the amount of research and management efforts that stream salmonids have received, it is legitimate and timely to ask whether the knowledge acquired to date is appropriate to understand their complex ecology and overwhelming diversity of life-history strategies and to offer solutions to the conservation issues faced by all countries where stream salmonids are present.
All these issues are the focus of this new meeting and as in previous ones this Granada’s meeting will provide a forum to:
1. Update our knowledge on the above topics.
2. Explore how we may move from scientific knowledge to conservation principles to ensure the long-term viability and evolutionary course of salmonids.
3. Evaluate mitigation of human impacts on their populations and reduce the impacts of exotic salmonids on native freshwater faunas wherever they have been introduced.
Specific Sessions (presentations and posters are welcome within these sessions. Other Specific Sessions can be established upon request):
(1). The Status and Conservation of Trout and Char Worldwide by Jeff Kershner, Jack Williams, Robert Gresswell & Javier Lobón-Cerviá. This is the first comprehensive look at the taxonomy, life history, and conservation status of the world’s inland trout and char. These are fascinating and beautiful fish that rate high for the angler as well as for tourist and recreational economies. Trout and char also play key roles in the ecology of many river systems around the world. This book will be the primary resource for trout biologists, conservationists, and anglers in the many countries where trout are native or have been introduced. This project assembles some of the most renowned trout biologists and conservations from across the globe to contribute their knowledge and passion about trout and char. Much of this book will document new information about species diversity and distributions that has not been widely available before. Summary chapters explore significant conservation and management challenges posed by these fishes that should be of broad interest to scientists, resource managers, anglers, and interested public from around the globe. Trout and char are abundant in many regions but most native species are on the decline. Some are classified as vulnerable, threatened, or endangered. Because of their widespread stocking in regions where they are not native, some trout and char also are the cause for threats to other native species. Regardless of whether they are native or introduced in origin, rapid climate change is challenging their future as streams warm and waters become more variable in their flows. This book examines trout and char from all these perspectives.
(2). Values and ethics in Salmonid Conservation by J. Piccolo & G. Giannico. Salmonids have been a species of conservation concern for long over a century. Despite this, salmonid populations continue to decline across many parts of their native range. Improving the understanding of our human relationship with nature is an important part of stemming population declines and species extinctions. "Values" are the goods received by human and non-humans within ecosystems, and "ethics" are codes of behavior that humans should follow to in order to conserve these values. This session will provide a dialogue about values in salmonid social-ecological systems, in an effort to further develop conservation ethics.
(3). Genetics in the Ecology of Stream Salmonids by Nuria Sanz. Genetics and ecology are two disciplines tightly linked in nature. The ecological variations have consequences for population genetics and the genetics of the populations determine how the populations respond to changes of ecological conditions. Since the end of the 20th century, technological advances have allowed genetics to be applied in many lines of research and modern techniques of molecular ecology have become highly relevant on the field of ecology. In the complex world of stream salmonids, genetics is required to understand the evolution of the high variability on morphological and life history traits and to elucidate controversies on the definitions of species. Genetics also provides effective tools for assessing the impact of stocking, introduction and translocation of populations and/or species. Genetic studies on family relationships permit to estimating the number of breeders, the possibility of inbreeding, and the effective population size and, combined with analysis of population structure genetic data permits to infer fish dispersion and the impact of fluvial hydrology human-mediated modifications. Unfortunately, studies capable of fully integrating genetic and ecological data are still scarce but essential to evaluate the state of conservation of populations and to define appropriate management units.
(4). Habitat and Population Dynamics by Gary D. Grossman. In recent years, significant advances have been made in the study of salmonid habitat selection, on both a reach and individual scale. Similarly, much progress has been made in elucidating the manifold factors that affect long-term abundance and demographic processes (i.e., growth, mortality, fecundity) within salmonid populations From both a basic and applied perspective, it is now important to assess how studies of habitat selection and use can be scaled up to include measures of habitat availability and ultimate how these two factors (selection and availability) influence population dynamics and demography. In a sense, the purpose of the session is to explore how our knowledge has changed since Chapman’s seminal 1964 paper “Food and space as regulators of salmonid populations in streams”.
(5) Population dynamics of salmonids post ecological disturbance by Phaedra Budy. Ecological disturbances shape landscapes and can alter patterns in population dynamics across space and time. Understanding the effects of changing disturbance regimes is thus a critical concern for the conservation of native species. These disturbances can be pulse disturbances, relatively rare and of large magnitude and influence, such as wildfire. Alternatively, disturbance can be ‘press’ in nature, in which the impacts are small in magnitude but occur consistently across time, such as climate-change driven thermokarst failures in the Arctic, for example. Anthropogenic interventions can also act as an ecological disturbance (e.g., mechanical removal of invasive species, construction or destruction of dams), potentially altering native fish population status and ability to persist. Collectively, disturbances can stimulate dramatic changes in fish population dynamics (e.g., density dependent thresholds, exponential population growth, and changes to vital rates including survival and growth rates, and age and size structure). In this session we will explore how dynamics of native and nonnative salmonid populations respond to disturbances including wildfire, stocking, indirect effects of climate change, fragmentation, and eradication of nonnative fishes.
(6) Social-ecological approaches to stream salmonid fisheries: P. Taylor & A. Carlson. Salmonid fisheries involve interactions among biota, habitats, and humans, yet systematic assessment of social-ecological couplings is scarce. Recent advances in the study of coupled human and natural systems (CHANS) offer insights for revolutionizing salmonid research, management, and policymaking. This section will focus on linkages between salmonid ecosystems and human systems and how we can use them to advance salmonid science and conservation. As such, we welcome talks that help connect topics in a range of disciplines (e.g., ecology, management, physiology, genetics, socioeconomics, policy, governance).